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D degree Doctor of Pharmacy takes 6 years. Italy uses a three-level degree system. The first-level degree, called a " laurea " Bachelor's degree , requires three years and a short thesis. The second-level degree, called a " laurea magistrale " Master's degree , is obtained after two additional years, specializing in a branch of the field.
This degree requires more advanced thesis work, usually involving academic research or an internship. The final degree is called a " dottorato di ricerca " Ph.
Alternatively, after obtaining the laurea or the laurea magistrale one can complete a "Master's" first-level Master's after the laurea ; second-level Master's after the laurea magistrale of one or two years, usually including an internship.
An Italian "Master's" is not the same as a master's degree; it is intended to be more focused on professional training and practical experience. Graduates in the fields of Education, Art and Music are also called Dr.
Many professional titles, such as ingegnere engineer are awarded only upon passing a post-graduation examination esame di stato , and registration in the relevant professional association. The first institution in Italy to create a doctoral program Ph. Until the s, most natural science and engineering doctorates in Japan were earned by industrial researchers in Japanese companies. These degrees were awarded by the employees' former university, usually after years of research in industrial laboratories.
The only requirement is submission of a dissertation, along with articles published in well-known journals. It produced the majority of engineering doctoral degrees from national universities. This curriculum is professionally oriented,  but unlike in the US the program does not provide education sufficient for a law license.
All candidates for a bar license must pass the bar exam Shihou shiken , attend the Legal Training and Research Institute and pass the practical exam Nikai Shiken or Shihou Shushusei koushi. The traditional academic system of the Netherlands provided basic academic diploma: After successful completion of the first year of university, the student was awarded the propaedeutic diploma not a degree.
In some fields, this diploma was abolished in the s. In physics and mathematics, the student could directly obtain a kandidaats candidate diploma in two years. The candidate diploma was all but abolished by It used to be attained after completion of the majority of courses of the academic study usually after completion of course requirements of the third year in the program , after which the student was allowed to begin work on their doctorandus thesis.
In addition to these 'general' degrees, specific titles equivalent to the doctorandus degree were awarded for law: Following the Bologna protocol the Dutch adopted the Anglo-Saxon system of academic degrees. The old candidate's degree was revived to become the bachelor's degree and the doctorandus' mr and ir degree were replaced by master's degrees.
Dutch university programmes tend to include advanced subject matter that e. Students can only enroll in a doctorate system after completing a research university level master's degree; although dispensation can be granted on a case by case basis after scrutiny of the individual's portfolio. Research can also be conducted without official research assistant status, for example through a business-sponsored research laboratory.
The promotor professor determines whether the thesis quality suffices and can be submitted to the committee of experts. A committee of experts in the field review the thesis. Failures at this stage are rare because supervisors withhold inadequate work.
The supervisors and promotor lose prestige among their colleagues should they allow a substandard thesis to be submitted. After reviewer approval, the candidate publishes the thesis generally more than copies and sends it to colleagues, friends and family with an invitation to the public defense.
The degree is awarded in a formal, public, defense session, in which the thesis is defended against critical questions of the "opposition" the review committee. Failure during this session is possible, but rare. Before the defense there may or may not be a public presentation, lasting 10 minutes e. Eindhoven University to exactly half hour e. The actual defense lasts exactly the assigned time slot 45 minutes to 1 hour exactly depending on the University after which the defense is stopped by the bedel who closes the process.
The doctor's title is the highest academic degree in the Netherlands. In research doctorates the degree is always Ph. Although the title doctor is informally called Ph. All other university titles B. Any person thus can adopt the Ph. Those who obtained a degree in a foreign country can only use the Dutch title drs. Dutch doctors may use the letter D behind their name instead of the uncapitalized shortcut dr.
Those who have multiple doctor dr. In Belgium 's Flemish Community the doctorandus title was only used by those who actually started their doctoral work. Doctorandus is still used as a synonym for a Ph. The licentiaat licensee title was in use for a regular graduate until the Bologna reform changed the licentiaat degree to the master's degree the Bologna reform abolished the two-year kandidaat degree and introduced a three-year academic bachelor's degree instead.
In the Russian Empire the academic degree "doctor of the sciences" doktor nauk marked the highest academic degree that can be achieved by an examination. The "doctor nauk" degree was introduced in Russia in , abolished in , and revived in the USSR in A lower degree, " candidate [doctor] of the sciences " kandidat nauk ; first introduced in the USSR on January 13, , by a decision of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR , is, roughly, the Russian equivalent to the research doctorate in other countries.
Doctoral degrees are regulated by Royal Decree R. They are granted by the University on behalf of the King. Its Diploma has the force of a public document. All doctoral programs are research-oriented. A minimum of 4 years of study is required, divided into 2 stages:. Since September and regulated by Royal Decree R.
In the public defense the doctor is notified if the thesis has passed or not passed. The Apto Cum Laude mark is awarded after the public defense as the result of a private, anonymous vote. Votes are verified by the University.
In the same Royal Decree the initial 3-year study period was replaced by a Research master's degree one or two years; Professional master's degrees do not grant direct access to Ph. An approved project earns a master's degree that grants access to a Ph. A doctorate is required in order to teach at the University.
Complutense University was the only one in Spain authorised to confer the doctorate. This law remained in effect until , when the University of Salamanca joined in commemoration of its septecentenary. In , the right was extended to all Spanish universities. All doctorate holders are reciprocally recognised as equivalent in Germany and Spain according to the "Bonn Agreement of November 14, ". The doctorate has long existed in the UK as, originally, the second degree in divinity, law, medicine and music.
But it was not until the late 19th century that the research doctorate, now known as the higher doctorate, was introduced. The first higher doctorate was the Doctor of Science at Durham University , introduced in The PhD was adopted in the UK following a joint decision in by British universities, although it took much longer for it to become established. Oxford became the first university to institute the new degree, although naming it the DPhil.
At Cambridge, for example, PhDs wear a master's gown with scarlet facings rather than the full scarlet gown of the higher doctors, while the University of Wales gave PhDs crimson gowns rather than scarlet.
Today, except for those awarded honoris causa , all doctorates granted by British universities are research doctorates, in that their main and in many cases only component is the submission of an extensive and substantial thesis or portfolio of original research, examined by an expert panel appointed by the university. UK doctorates are categorised as: These are the most common doctorates in the UK and are normally awarded as PhDs.
However, the assessment of the PhD remains based on the production of a thesis or equivalent and its defence at a viva voce oral examination, normally held in front of at least two examiners, one internal and one external. Courses normally last three years, although it is common for students to be initially registered for MPhil degrees and then formally transferred onto the PhD after a year or two.
Students who are not considered likely to complete a PhD may be offered the opportunity to complete an MPhil instead. Integrated doctorates, originally known as 'New Route PhDs', were introduced from onwards. These integrate teaching at master's level during the first one or two years of the degree, either alongside research or as a preliminary to starting research.
These courses usually offer a master's-level exit degree after the taught causes are completed. While passing the taught elements is often required, examination of the final doctorate is still by thesis or equivalent alone.
Higher doctorates are awarded in recognition of a substantial body of original research undertaken over the course of many years. Typically the candidate submits a collection of previously published, peer-refereed work, which is reviewed by a committee of internal and external academics who decide whether the candidate deserves the doctorate. The higher doctorate is similar in some respects to the habilitation in some European countries. However, the purpose of the award is significantly different.
While the habilitation formally determines whether an academic is suitably qualified to be a university professor, the higher doctorate does not qualify the holder for a position but rather recognises their contribution to research. In terms of number of higher doctorates awarded not including honorary doctorates the DSc was most popular, but the number of awards was very low: Most British universities award degrees honoris causa to recognise individuals who have made a substantial contribution to a particular field.
Usually an appropriate higher doctorate is used in these circumstances, depending on the candidate's achievements. However, some universities differentiate between honorary and substantive doctorates, using the degree of Doctor of the University D. The structure of US doctoral programs is more formal and complex than some others. US research doctorates are awarded for successfully completing and defending independent research presented in the form of a dissertation, along with advanced study.
Multiple professional degrees use the term "doctor" in their title, such as Juris Doctor and Doctor of Medicine , but these degrees do not always contain an independent research component or always require a dissertation and should not be confused with Ph. In legal studies the Ph. Many universities offer Ph. The most common research doctorate is the Doctor of Philosophy Ph. This degree was first awarded in the U. Unlike the introduction of the professional doctorate M.
The median number of years for completion of US doctoral degrees is seven. When so admitted, the student is expected to have mastered the material covered in the master's degree despite not holding one, though this tradition is under heavy criticism. While not authoritative, the International Affairs Office of the U. Department of Education listed over 20 "frequently" awarded research doctorate titles identified by the National Science Foundation NSF in a document as representing degrees equivalent in research content to the Ph.
The Doctor of Music and Doctor of Industrial Technology were removed in , after the study evaluation identified that these were fully professional, rather than research-based, doctorates.
Many fields offer professional doctorates or professional master's such as pharmacy , medicine , public health , dentistry , optometry , psychology , speech-language pathology , physical therapy , occupational therapy , health science , advanced practice registered nurse , chiropractic , naturopathic medicine , law , architecture , education , teaching , business , management , and others that require such degrees for professional practice or licensure.
Some of these degrees are also termed " first professional degrees ," since they are the first field-specific master's or doctoral degrees. A Doctor of Pharmacy is awarded as the professional degree in Pharmacy replacing a Bachelor's. It is the only professional pharmacy degree awarded in the US. Pharmacy programs vary in length between 4 years for matriculants with a B. In the twenty-first century professional doctorates appeared in other fields, such as the Doctor of Audiology in Advanced Practice Registered Nurses were expected to completely transition to the Doctor of Nursing Practice by , and physical therapists to the Doctor of Physical Therapy by Professional associations play a central role in this transformation amid criticisms on the lack of proper criteria to assure appropriate rigor.
In many cases Masters level programs were relabeled as doctoral programs. A doctoral degree can be revoked or rescinded by the university that awarded it. Possible reasons include plagiarism, criminal or unethical activities of the author, or malfunction or manipulation of academic evaluation processes.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Doctor disambiguation. Professional degree and List of doctoral degrees in the US. List of doctoral degrees awarded by country. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. List of doctoral degrees in the US.
Archived from the original on The Higher Education Academy, p. Perhaps the most fundamental difference between the two systems is embodied in their systems of certification; namely, in medieval Europe, the licentia docendi , or license to teach; in medieval Islam, the ijaza , or authorization. The rise of early modern science: Islam, China, and the West 2. It remains the case that no equivalent of the bachelor's degree, the licentia docendi, or higher degrees ever emerged in the medieval or early modern Islamic madrasas.
Retrieved 7 October King's College organized a medical faculty in and was the first institution in the North American Colonies to confer the degree of Doctor of Medicine. The first graduates in medicine from the College were Robert Tucker and Samuel Kissarn, who received the degree of Bachelor of Medicine in May , and that of Doctor of Medicine in May and May , respectively. Training for the Public Profession of the Law. Carnegie's Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Bulletin UK Council for Graduate Education.
Perraton 17 June A History of Foreign Students in Britain. Retrieved 18 June Lessons for Commonwealth African Law Schools.
New York State Bar Association. Archived from the original PDF on Archived from the original on 27 January Retrieved 1 October Retrieved 16 September University of Oxford Department of Economics. Retrieved 4 October Swedish National Agency for Higher Education.
Finnish National Board of Education. Fulbright Commission Belgium and Luxembourg. Embassy of the United States Brussels.
The degree is open to everyone including non-Belgians who has earned the B. Congregazione per l'Educazione Cattolica. Wippel - CUA Philosophy". Gabelli School of Business. Retrieved 5 November National Center for Educational Statistics. US Department of Education.
Retrieved 1 September Retrieved 2 September The highest award a student can earn for graduate study. The doctor's degree classification includes such degrees as Doctor of Education, Doctor of Juridical Science, Doctor of Public Health, and the Doctor of Philosophy degree in any field such as agronomy, food technology, education, engineering, public administration, ophthalmology, or radiology. Examples of this type of degree may include the following and others, as designated by the awarding institution: A doctor's degree that is conferred upon completion of a program providing the knowledge and skills for the recognition, credential, or license required for professional practice.
The degree is awarded after a period of study such that the total time to the degree, including both preprofessional and professional preparation, equals at least 6 full-time-equivalent academic years. Some doctor's degrees of this type were formerly classified as first-professional degrees. Council of Ministers of Education, Canada. Retrieved 3 October Though considered to be bachelor's programs in academic standing, some professional programs yield degrees with other nomenclature. Australian Qualifications Framework Council.
Archived from the original PDF on 13 December National Qualifications Authority of Ireland. University of Technology Sydney. Retrieved 26 October Archived from the original on 10 October Doctor of Juridical Science. Master of Laws by Research. Master of Taxation by Research. Kasvatustieteen laitoksen tutkimuksia Pages 29 and — Pages 29 and Schrift , Twentieth-Century French Philosophy: Archived from the original on 11 April A Comparison with the United States Nsf.
Retrieved April 7, Justice System Reform in Japan. European Network on Law and Society. A History , Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, , Table 2. Historical Notes for the Mathematics Genealogy Projec". Nineteenth Century Oxford , Oxford: Oxford University Press, , p. Academical Dress of British and Irish Universities. International Association for Practice Doctorates. Retrieved 27 September Program - Yale Law School".
Program, UW School of Law". College of Nursing and Health Professions.
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